Veil of Darkness coefficient scores by department

Researchers warn that the magnitude of the coefficient should not be used to quantitatively evaluate relative differences in disparate treatment. However, the sign and level of significance, however, are sufficient indicators that can be used to identify a disparity.
Department Veil of Darkness analysis results, combined inter-twilight
DepartmentVOD EstimateMinoritiesBlackHispanicBlack or Hispanic
AnsoniaCoefficient-0.102-0.063-0.614***-0.299**
AnsoniaSE-0.17-0.176-0.195-0.139
AnsoniaESS1,6581,6281,5631,858
AvonCoefficient-0.123-1.001-1.443**-1.132*
AvonSE-0.562-0.798-0.613-0.605
AvonESS357341336359
BerlinCoefficient0.1830.1130.1280.128
BerlinSE-0.267-0.295-0.256-0.204
BerlinESS1,6311,5901,6371,817
BethelCoefficient-0.473-0.173-0.144-0.148
BethelSE-0.358-0.397-0.38-0.293
BethelESS696678711760
BloomfieldCoefficient-0.539***-0.571***-0.49-0.567***
BloomfieldSE-0.187-0.19-0.328-0.187
BloomfieldESS1,1161,0805521,150
BranfordCoefficient0.006-0.096-0.297-0.217
BranfordSE-0.313-0.323-0.278-0.222
BranfordESS1,0591,0541,0761,146
BridgeportCoefficient-0.026-0.058-0.286-0.123
BridgeportSE-0.17-0.172-0.191-0.156
BridgeportESS1,4581,4241,2061,988
BristolCoefficient0.1640.0780.0730.071
BristolSE-0.2-0.218-0.17-0.141
BristolESS2,1852,1532,2592,442
BrookfieldCoefficient0.3270.1270.5010.419
BrookfieldSE-0.591-0.772-0.425-0.381
BrookfieldESS572562586606
CantonCoefficient1.1839.264***-0.285-0.067
CantonSE-1.125-3.474-1.611-1.062
CantonESS480472475479
CheshireCoefficient-0.278-0.227-0.108-0.157
CheshireSE-0.212-0.228-0.308-0.193
CheshireESS1,5561,5251,4521,615
ClintonCoefficient0.1660.023-0.473-0.299
ClintonSE-0.4-0.506-0.43-0.331
ClintonESS725706731758
CoventryCoefficient0.2221.1231.0130.833
CoventrySE-1.063-1.041-0.765-0.601
CoventryESS452446454462
CromwellCoefficient0.3770.417-0.2050.237
CromwellSE-0.397-0.437-0.801-0.397
CromwellESS408399371419
DanburyCoefficient-0.293-0.03-0.305-0.239
DanburySE-0.355-0.411-0.23-0.215
DanburyESS574550742813
DarienCoefficient0.1030.142-0.349-0.134
DarienSE-0.313-0.337-0.316-0.244
DarienESS612594610695
DerbyCoefficient-0.072-0.187-0.131-0.1
DerbySE-0.318-0.338-0.294-0.239
DerbyESS776767763876
East HamptonCoefficient-0.143-0.032-0.186
East HamptonSE-2.043-2.014-2.022
East HamptonESS121119122
East HartfordCoefficient0.0070.0060.105
East HartfordSE-0.193-0.195-0.206-0.176
East HartfordESS9989738381,320
East HavenCoefficient0.111-0.1350.1190.052
East HavenSE-0.292-0.327-0.255-0.211
East HavenESS798782844915
East WindsorCoefficient-0.069-0.0080.3560.066
East WindsorSE-0.495-0.501-0.664-0.416
East WindsorESS287286273306
EastonCoefficient-128.6*-43.7-1.194-1.304
EastonSE-72.12-3078-1.06-0.98
EastonESS103102110115
EnfieldCoefficient0.553***0.564**-0.1560.237
EnfieldSE-0.209-0.231-0.252-0.175
EnfieldESS1,9191,8891,8612,007
FairfieldCoefficient-0.091-0.122-0.544***-0.3**
FairfieldSE-0.14-0.148-0.169-0.119
FairfieldESS2,4522,3952,3222,814
FarmingtonCoefficient-0.164-0.411-0.012-0.25
FarmingtonSE-0.258-0.323-0.354-0.254
FarmingtonESS1,1901,1171,1081,209
GlastonburyCoefficient-0.044-0.219-0.242-0.213
GlastonburySE-0.221-0.295-0.287-0.212
GlastonburyESS1,4561,3801,4011,502
GranbyCoefficient0.250.2492.108*0.524
GranbySE-0.846-1.023-1.127-0.856
GranbyESS344341332347
GreenwichCoefficient-0.19-0.3740.018-0.092
GreenwichSE-0.224-0.275-0.185-0.16
GreenwichESS1,5341,4681,6421,768
Groton CityCoefficient-0.229-0.1250.024-0.05
Groton CitySE-0.408-0.494-0.446-0.354
Groton CityESS432413416480
Groton Long PointCoefficient
Groton Long PointSE
Groton Long PointESS
GuilfordCoefficient0.1160.632-0.573-0.145
GuilfordSE-0.369-0.631-0.43-0.374
GuilfordESS1,0691,0441,0641,079
HamdenCoefficient-0.026-0.030.099-0.015
HamdenSE-0.167-0.168-0.251-0.158
HamdenESS1,3931,3769971,528
HartfordCoefficient0.390.328-0.5720.045
HartfordSE-0.288-0.295-0.357-0.282
HartfordESS9219067441,180
MadisonCoefficient0.046-0.127-1.067*-0.66
MadisonSE-0.421-0.545-0.58-0.431
MadisonESS876862872897
ManchesterCoefficient0.0490.0310.130.084
ManchesterSE-0.163-0.177-0.197-0.145
ManchesterESS1,5661,4951,3751,720
MeridenCoefficient0.4040.4540.1290.23
MeridenSE-0.311-0.32-0.238-0.215
MeridenESS530520713831
MiddleburyCoefficient
MiddleburySE
MiddleburyESS
MiddletownCoefficient0.0520.1220.3820.222
MiddletownSE-0.252-0.26-0.332-0.221
MiddletownESS699689611747
MilfordCoefficient0.4120.413-0.749-0.008
MilfordSE-0.51-0.57-0.952-0.463
MilfordESS320308288337
MonroeCoefficient-0.124-0.345-0.364-0.323
MonroeSE-0.29-0.323-0.324-0.235
MonroeESS1,6871,6671,6931,783
NaugatuckCoefficient-0.37-0.379-0.166-0.161
NaugatuckSE-0.27-0.294-0.228-0.192
NaugatuckESS1,2601,2441,3131,419
New BritainCoefficient0.130.169-0.219**-0.098
New BritainSE-0.145-0.15-0.111-0.101
New BritainESS1,9031,8532,6233,138
New CanaanCoefficient-0.227-0.534*-0.233-0.404*
New CanaanSE-0.234-0.282-0.277-0.208
New CanaanESS1,6501,5891,6351,740
New HavenCoefficient0.395***0.388***0.0150.281***
New HavenSE-0.091-0.092-0.115-0.085
New HavenESS4,3304,2562,8735,300
New LondonCoefficient0.2850.357-0.472-0.074
New LondonSE-0.409-0.422-0.34-0.302
New LondonESS270267296346
New MilfordCoefficient-0.997*-0.618-1.432***-1.204***
New MilfordSE-0.525-0.519-0.444-0.349
New MilfordESS9799641,0251,057
NewingtonCoefficient0.1920.1420.0230.07
NewingtonSE-0.185-0.209-0.165-0.142
NewingtonESS1,3051,2441,3541,556
NewtownCoefficient-0.257-0.2970.051-0.121
NewtownSE-0.207-0.243-0.216-0.166
NewtownESS3,4483,3783,4133,615
North BranfordCoefficient1.1310.771-0.7630.179
North BranfordSE-0.868-0.949-0.901-0.675
North BranfordESS310306303318
North HavenCoefficient-0.676-0.6030.038-0.215
North HavenSE-0.431-0.453-0.482-0.351
North HavenESS451443423486
NorwalkCoefficient-0.435**-0.424**0.211-0.125
NorwalkSE-0.195-0.201-0.213-0.164
NorwalkESS1,1071,0821,0401,318
NorwichCoefficient1.3341.744*2.166**1.829**
NorwichSE-0.86-0.974-0.932-0.788
NorwichESS277268261321
Old SaybrookCoefficient0.2690.6150.0160.211
Old SaybrookSE-0.375-0.487-0.337-0.288
Old SaybrookESS1,1811,1531,1911,221
OrangeCoefficient0.0140.0160.0270.025
OrangeSE-0.18-0.194-0.212-0.158
OrangeESS1,3801,3261,2691,533
PlainfieldCoefficient0.2030.203-0.4170.254
PlainfieldSE-0.72-0.72-0.729-0.562
PlainfieldESS420420421435
PlainvilleCoefficient-0.434-0.4990.047-0.144
PlainvilleSE-0.273-0.304-0.247-0.205
PlainvilleESS1,1011,0831,1151,200
PlymouthCoefficient0.101-0.088-0.154-0.175
PlymouthSE-0.591-0.66-0.559-0.444
PlymouthESS541537537560
PortlandCoefficient
PortlandSE
PortlandESS
PutnamCoefficient-0.493-0.4934.834**-0.619
PutnamSE-1.945-1.945-2.075-1.229
PutnamESS311311304312
ReddingCoefficient0.6510.32-0.857-0.445
ReddingSE-0.565-0.677-0.563-0.448
ReddingESS509500530547
RidgefieldCoefficient0.0870.4090.53*0.495**
RidgefieldSE-0.319-0.459-0.289-0.251
RidgefieldESS1,5861,5261,6191,672
Rocky HillCoefficient-0.128-0.1110.2550.09
Rocky HillSE-0.22-0.249-0.26-0.19
Rocky HillESS1,1471,1041,0891,223
SeymourCoefficient-0.186-0.237-0.007-0.119
SeymourSE-0.343-0.362-0.366-0.276
SeymourESS9689639711,031
SheltonCoefficient0.3680.368-0.3820.092
SheltonSE-1.253-1.253-0.936-0.793
SheltonESS132132137146
SimsburyCoefficient0.5050.667-0.7120.052
SimsburySE-0.438-0.477-0.729-0.393
SimsburyESS738721707742
South WindsorCoefficient0.1480.178-0.65**-0.072
South WindsorSE-0.22-0.238-0.328-0.203
South WindsorESS1,0279909241,105
SouthingtonCoefficient-0.072-0.1930.1460.124
SouthingtonSE-0.632-0.839-0.373-0.352
SouthingtonESS1,0321,0201,0621,080
StamfordCoefficient0.292*0.302*0.0170.136
StamfordSE-0.151-0.166-0.149-0.123
StamfordESS1,2391,1661,2411,463
StoningtonCoefficient-0.102-0.6291.155-0.038
StoningtonSE-0.41-0.454-0.815-0.406
StoningtonESS848836819850
StratfordCoefficient0.47*0.460.2740.401
StratfordSE-0.284-0.289-0.309-0.26
StratfordESS451438374563
SuffieldCoefficient-1.643-1.4927.044***-0.807
SuffieldSE-1.148-1.183-1.956-0.862
SuffieldESS300297286301
ThomastonCoefficient0.626-0.018-0.483-0.132
ThomastonSE-1.126-1.772-0.817-0.672
ThomastonESS274269277280
TorringtonCoefficient-0.116-0.2010.3120.123
TorringtonSE-0.302-0.334-0.242-0.208
TorringtonESS1,5201,5051,5541,625
TrumbullCoefficient-0.086-0.2060.015-0.117
TrumbullSE-0.223-0.238-0.254-0.188
TrumbullESS829800764962
VernonCoefficient0.1460.0950.1810.142
VernonSE-0.288-0.297-0.315-0.228
VernonESS914905883989
WallingfordCoefficient0.0890.143-0.208-0.055
WallingfordSE-0.208-0.224-0.183-0.148
WallingfordESS2,2802,2472,3532,552
WaterburyCoefficient-0.448-0.448-0.274-0.378
WaterburySE-0.472-0.473-0.503-0.403
WaterburyESS328326306448
WaterfordCoefficient-0.356*-0.569***-0.363*-0.471***
WaterfordSE-0.186-0.201-0.212-0.159
WaterfordESS1,4451,3991,4131,575
WatertownCoefficient0.109-0.1060.80.222
WatertownSE-0.598-0.617-0.602-0.444
WatertownESS336332329353
West HartfordCoefficient-0.326**-0.304*-0.332**-0.284**
West HartfordSE-0.155-0.175-0.154-0.126
West HartfordESS2,2322,1032,2322,603
West HavenCoefficient-0.062-0.047-0.002-0.023
West HavenSE-0.146-0.149-0.162-0.123
West HavenESS1,4791,4541,3611,793
WestonCoefficient-0.032-0.0320.494
WestonSE-0.912-0.912-0.935
WestonESS888891
WestportCoefficient0.0520.1-0.2-0.007
WestportSE-0.202-0.219-0.243-0.172
WestportESS1,5721,5321,4711,688
WethersfieldCoefficient-0.288-0.394**-0.233-0.277*
WethersfieldSE-0.192-0.198-0.17-0.145
WethersfieldESS1,0231,0041,1281,380
WillimanticCoefficient-0.193-0.337-1.018***-0.855***
WillimanticSE-0.386-0.408-0.245-0.221
WillimanticESS517510668718
WiltonCoefficient-0.422-0.3470.025-0.153
WiltonSE-0.283-0.327-0.249-0.213
WiltonESS1,1501,1071,1711,256
WindsorCoefficient0.1370.203-0.468*0.08
WindsorSE-0.144-0.146-0.25-0.139
WindsorESS1,5171,4709651,626
Windsor LocksCoefficient0.0750.0430.0230.021
Windsor LocksSE-0.301-0.325-0.464-0.279
Windsor LocksESS700674620722
WinstedCoefficient-3.5***-3.395**-5.567***
WinstedSE-1.184-1.559-2.078
WinstedESS186182187
WolcottCoefficient-0.764-0.764-0.896-0.5
WolcottSE-0.941-0.941-1.092-0.896
WolcottESS130130132139
WoodbridgeCoefficient0.3050.136-0.792-0.099
WoodbridgeSE-0.296-0.313-0.505-0.286
WoodbridgeESS407390321436
State Police- All OtherCoefficient-0.154-0.123-0.101-0.1
State Police- All OtherSE-0.137-0.15-0.176-0.123
State Police- All OtherESS3,9003,7403,5564,244
State Police- Troop ACoefficient-0.242*-0.293**-0.162-0.215**
State Police- Troop ASE(-0.13)(-0.143)(-0.125)(-0.103)
State Police- Troop AESS4,4034,2644,6115,141
State Police- Troop BCoefficient-0.203-0.066-0.083-0.074
State Police- Troop BSE(-0.241)(-0.287)(-0.228)(-0.185)
State Police- Troop BESS2,3462,3132,3752,458
State Police- Troop CCoefficient-0.277***-0.182-0.273**-0.223**
State Police- Troop CSE(-0.092)(-0.121)(-0.124)(-0.09)
State Police- Troop CESS8,6738,1468,0898,709
State Police- Troop DCoefficient0.405***0.2450.2180.191*
State Police- Troop DSE(-0.135)(-0.171)(-0.144)(-0.115)
State Police- Troop DESS5,6255,4745,5715,803
State Police- Troop ECoefficient-0.061-0.1150.249**0.041
State Police- Troop ESE(-0.093)(-0.108)(-0.121)(-0.086)
State Police- Troop EESS6,6066,3356,1786,809
State Police- Troop FCoefficient0.009-0.128-0.164-0.135
State Police- Troop FSE(-0.116)(-0.138)(-0.138)(-0.102)
State Police- Troop FESS6,4426,2386,2306,746
State Police- Troop GCoefficient-0.138-0.078-0.156-0.103
State Police- Troop GSE(-0.097)(-0.105)(-0.109)(-0.084)
State Police- Troop GESS4,5114,2494,1475,222
State Police- Troop HCoefficient-0.249**-0.211-0.218-0.187*
State Police- Troop HSE(-0.12)(-0.13)(-0.147)(-0.108)
State Police- Troop HESS3,6783,4683,2374,066
State Police- Troop ICoefficient0.043-0.011-0.315*-0.144
State Police- Troop ISE(-0.145)(-0.16)(-0.173)(-0.127)
State Police- Troop IESS2,7092,6062,5583,005
State Police- Troop KCoefficient-0.152-0.169-0.379***-0.303***
State Police- Troop KSE(-0.133)(-0.156)(-0.141)(-0.111)
State Police- Troop KESS4,5354,4074,4694,812
State Police- Troop LCoefficient0.439**0.193-0.0450.025
State Police- Troop LSE(-0.21)(-0.25)(-0.201)(-0.166)
State Police- Troop LESS2,7532,7002,7842,920
CCSU Institute for Municipal and Regional Policy